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What is Embedded System?

March 24, 2021
What is Embedded System?

Introduction to Embedded System

Embedded System can be defined as the system where software embedded into hardware, which makes a system dedicated for an application. It processes a fixed setup pre-programmed instruction to control electromechanical equipment. Embedded systems are such devices which are used to control, monitor or assist the operation of equipment.

Embedded Systems are in cell phones, videogame, digital camera, washing machines, Robotics, etc.

Embedded System has three components-

  • Hardware

Hardware includes the physical parts of a computer and used as computing devices that are required to store and run the software. Examples- Keyboard, Hard disk, Mouse, Monitor, CPU, motherboard, power supply, processor, memory, Input and output circuit, etc.

  • Application software

Application Software refers to any program or collection of program that performs a specific function. An embedded system has software to design and fulfill the following requirements-

  1. Availability processor speed.
  2. Availability of system memory.
  3. Need to limit the power dissipation.

Examples –Operating system, Microsoft word, Microsoft PowerPoint, Notepad, Media Player, etc.

  • Real Time Operating System (RTOS)

RTOS defines the way the system works. It sets the rules during the execution of application program. So we can define an embedded system as a Microcontroller based, software driven and reliable, real-time control system.

Features of Embedded System

  • They perform very specific task and cannot be designed to perform different task at the same time.
  • They have to be work against some time limit. In some embedded system called real time system, the deadlines are constant and missing a deadline may cause a loss of life or damage of property.
  • They are constrained for power supply as many system of upgrade through a battery. The Power consumption is very low.
  • It has to be upgrade in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperature, pressure, humidity, Noise, etc.
  • Speed of embedded system is relatively higher than the other systems.

*Application of Embedded System

Embedded systems are used in different application are as like automobiles, telecommunication, smartcards, missiles, satellites, etc. They are found everywhere from kitchen to spacecraft. Some fields of embedded system where they are used as-

  • Signal System– Signals systems are used in different area, such as-

-Highways (car, bus, truck)

-Railroad (Train)

-Airlines (Aircraft)

-Water travelling (Ocean ships)

  • Banking Sector– Banking sectors also use the embedded systems in different areas for security purpose. Examples are Smart Cards, ATM, Anti-lock banking system, etc.
  • Telecommunication Sector- Embedded systems also play essential role in telecom industry because they help to increase ultra speed networking capabilities. Examples are Data routers, MODEM, Network Switches, Mobile Computing, Wireless Communications, etc.
  • Home Appliances- Embedded systems are also used in the different types of household appliance which are use in our daily life, and we are totally depending on these items. Examples are- Refrigerators, Washing machines, Microwave ovens, etc.
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